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HTTP responses have:

  • a status code (200 OK! 404 not found!)
  • headers
  • a body (HTML, an image, JSON, etc)

Here’s the HTTP response from

HTTP/1.1 200 OK
Accept-Ranges: bytes
Cache-Control: public, max-age=0
Content-Length: 33
Content-Type: text/plain; charset=UTF-8 Date: Mon, 09 Sep 2019 01:57:35 GMT
Etag: "ac5affa59f554a1440043537ae973790-ssl"
Strict-Transport-Security: max-age=31536000
Age: 0
Server: Netlify
[ASCII image of a cat, labelled "cat!" with a smiley face]

The first line, HTTP/1.1 200 OK is the status code. “200” is the status.

The lines from Accept-Ranges to Server are the headers.

The cat picture is the body.

There are a few kinds of response headers:

  • when the resource was sent/modified:

    Date: Mon, 09 Sep 2019 01:57:35 GMT
    Last-Modified: 3 Feb 2017 13:00:00 GMT
  • about the response body:

    Content-Language: en-US 
    Content-Length: 33
    Content-Type: text/plain; charset=UTF-8
    Content-Encoding: gzip
  • caching:

    ETag: "ac5affa..."
    Vary: Accept-Encoding
    Age: 255
    Cache-Control: public, max-age=0
  • security: (see page 25)

    X-Frame-Options: DENY
    X-XSS-Protection: 1
    Strict-Transport-Security: max-age=31536000 
    Content-Security-Policy: default-src https:
  • and more:

    Connection: keep-alive
    Accept-Ranges: bytes
    Via: nginx
    Set-Cookie: cat-darcy; HttpOnly; expires=27-Feb-2020 13:18:57 GMT;

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