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Let’s meet the cast and see how they communicate with each other!

browser: where’s (function call)!

function: where’s (DNS query)!

resolver: where’s (DNS query)!

authoritative nameservers

Your browser uses DNS to look up IP addresses every time it visits a domain, like
The browser has a DNS cache.

Your operating system provides a function to do DNS lookups. On Linux and Mac it’s getaddrinfo.
Your operating system also might have a DNS cache.

The function sends requests to a server called a resolver which knows how to find the authoritative nameservers.
The resolver has a DNS cache.

The authoritative nameservers are the servers where the DNS records are actually stored.
They’re wearing crowns because they’re In Charge.

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